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But the genius of all the genii was one who wrote a series called Tarzan of the Apes. I read it, but regret I never saw it on the films, where it rages most successfully. He had 'jazzed' the motif of the Jungle Books and, I imagine, had thoroughly enjoyed himself. He was reported to have said that he wanted to find out how bad a book he could write and 'get away with', which is a legitimate ambition.

By , Floyd C. Gale of Galaxy Science Fiction wrote when discussing reprints of several Burroughs novels by Ace Books , "an entire generation has grown up inexplicably Burroughs-less". He stated that most of the author's books had been out of print for years and that only the "occasional laughable Tarzan film" reminded public of his fiction.

Few critical books have been written about Burroughs. Burroughs strongly supported eugenics and scientific racism. His views held that English nobles made up a particular heritable elite among Anglo-Saxons. Tarzan was meant to reflect this, with him being born to English nobles and then adopted by talking apes the Mangani. They express eugenicist views themselves, but Tarzan is permitted to live despite being deemed "unfit" in comparison, and grows up to surpass not only them but black Africans , whom Burrough clearly presents as inherently inferior, even not wholly human.

In one Tarzan story, he finds an ancient civilization where eugenics has been practiced for over 2, years, with the result that it is free of all crime. Criminal behavior is held to be entirely hereditary, with the solution having been to kill not only criminals but also their families. Lost on Venus , a later novel, presents a similar utopia where forced sterilization is practiced and the "unfit" killed.

Additionally, his Pirate Blood , which is not speculative fiction and remained unpublished after his death, portrayed the characters as victims of their hereditary criminal traits one a descendant of the corsair Jean Lafitte , another from the Jukes family. These three texts have been published by various houses in one or two volumes. Adding to the confusion, some editions have the original significantly longer introduction to Part I from the first publication as a magazine serial, and others have the shorter version from the first book publication, which included all three parts under the title The Moon Maid.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American writer. Tarzan series Barsoom series. Main article: Edgar Rice Burroughs bibliography. Main article: Barsoom. Main article: Tarzan. Main article: Pellucidar. Main article: Venus series. Biography portal Speculative fiction portal. Edmund Rice Association.

Archived from the original on July 25, Retrieved January 27, August 16, Archived from the original on March 12, Retrieved March 12, Retrieved October 19, Gunfighter Nation. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN Edmund Rice Association, Inc. Offbeat Oregon : "Ill-starred gold-mining venture worked out well for Tarzan fans", March 8, , Accessed October 11, May 15, Los Angeles Times — via ProQuest.

AOPA Pilot. May Retrieved February 14, Random House. March 22, Retrieved April 2, Locus Publications. Retrieved April 8, ERBzine 4 Archived from the original on March 16, The New York Times.

ISSN Retrieved December 12, Spring no. Something of Myself. June Galaxy Science Fiction. October Westport, CT: Greenwood, Edgar Rice Burroughs. Twayne's United States Author Series. Boston: Twayne, Jefferson, NC: McFarland, Master of Adventure: Edgar Rice Burroughs. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, Baltimore: Mirage Press, The Teenage Tarzan by Stan Galloway. David Smith; Alison L. Mitchell Ment Retard 39 3 : — Edgar Rice Burroughs at Wikipedia's sister projects.

Works by Edgar Rice Burroughs. The Rider The Mad King Tarzan by Edgar Rice Burroughs. Tarzan, the Ape Man Tarzan's Deadly Silence Tarzan in Manhattan Tarzan of the Apes Tarzan The main conclusions of the two studies appear consonant, i. Fully considering the effects of SR on plant nutrient characteristics and ecological stoichiometry applications at the regional, national and global scales, the simulation models were established to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of SR on leaf N and P stoichiometry Fig.

The fourth pathway in the model suggested that SR could directly affect the leaf elements concentrations by changing plant physiology processes such as photosynthesis and transpiration Ji et al. In addition, the other five pathways all showed the indirect effects of SR on leaf N and P stoichiometry Reich and Oleksyn ; Wang et al.

It should be noted that SR had significant effects on various soil biogeochemistry and nutrient cycling, which was mainly achieved by influencing the microbes and enzymes activities Wang et al.

Simulation models for evaluating the direct and indirect effects of SR on leaf N and P stoichiometry. Chinese fir is the tree species widely distributed and mainly cultivated across subtropical China. Despite many previous studies have focused on the effects of geography, climate, stand chronosequence and nitrogen deposition on leaf elements stoichiometry of Chinese fir Chen et al. Here, we investigated the leaf nutrient concentrations and collected the related SR and climate data, aiming to explore the direct and indirect effects of SR on leaf N and P stoichiometry.

Our study could shed new lights on the potential effects of SR on the plant physiological traits of Chinese fir at a regional scale, and also help evaluate whether SR should be taken into account in the future macroecological studies. The leaf and soil samples were collected from 19 Chinese fir plantations across 12 provinces of subtropical China. According to the division by Cooperation Group of Chinese fir, the sampling sites covered the traditional and representative production area including northern, middle and southern cultivated regions Wu Fig.

The study area was geographically located The Global R exhibited a decreasing trend and then increasing along the latitude, whereas had no associations with longitude and altitude Fig. Temperature and precipitation generally exhibited decreasing trends along the latitude, with a mean annual temperature MAT ranging from Chinese fir is the absolutely dominant tree species of arbor layer, and the undergrowth vegetation is relatively sparse, mainly including ferns, greenbriers and Miscanthus.

Map of the sampling sites of Chinese fir plantations and the variation of solar radiation across subtropical China The full name of each sampling site and values of solar radiation can be found in the Table S 1. In order to represent the most vigorous period of forests or plantations throughout the year, the tree summer fast-growing season was generally chosen.

In late July and early August , 19 middle-aged Chinese fir plantations were investigated in main production area of subtropical China Fig. Field sampling was conducted from the south to north to weaken the effects of phenological differences between the northern and southern China. Five or six trees with uniform and good growth were randomly selected, and were also measured the diameter at breast height in each plot.

The details of 19 plantations information were shown in Appendix Table S1 , and the division of the distribution zone was according to Wu In each plot, the 1- and 2- year old matured leaves were randomly sampled in the middle of the sun-exposed crown, with the leaves from the selected trees mixed to form a single sample. Recently natural senesced leaves under each selected tree were collected, and then mixed them to form a leaf litter sample.

We picked roughly ten pieces of compound leaf and leaf litter in each sampling site, respectively. All above processes were repeated in triplicate to obtain a total of 57 samples for leaf, leaf litter and soil 3 samples per site.

The geographical locations latitude, longitude, and altitude of the sampling sites were also recorded to explore the plant long-term adaption ability to the climate changes.

It was widely accepted that the values of climatic variables during a certain period had better implications for the plant nutrient characteristics than these at a certain time point. The organic carbon concentration was determining for each sample using potassium dichromate oxidation external heating method. The N and P concentrations were determining for each sample using the wet digestion with sulphuric and perchloric acid method.

Soil samples were air-dried after being sieved 2-mm mesh. Soil organic carbon was determined by the potassium dichromate oxidation external heating method. Soil N content was determined by Kjeldahl method, continuous flow analyzer and element analyzer.

Soil P content was determined by alkali melting method and acid dissolving method. Soil pH value was determined by potentiometric method. The data on leaf N concentration exhibited normal distribution, and the leaf P concentration and N:P ratio exhibited left and right skewed distribution, respectively Fig. All the data except for the soil pH of leaf N and P stoichiometry, SR including Global R, Direct R and Diffuse R , the climatic and edaphic variables were log transformed to improve the data normality.

According to the simulation models Fig. The PLS-PM was considered more as an exploratory approach than as a confirmatory one, while the CB-SEM was a statistical method for establishing, estimating and verifying causality models. The variance of Stoichiometry was explained by The variance of Climate explained by SR in the model was The variance of Soil explained by SR and Climate in the model was Ellipse represents the structural model, and box represents corresponding measurement models.

In the structural model, the lines indicated paths, and the values adjacent to the lines denote the magnitude of the path coefficients calculated by PLS regression. R 2 values are shown for all endogenous latent variables in the ellipse. Values in the measurement model represent the loadings between a latent variable and its indicators. The figure is showing the final models after model diagnosis processes. Pseudo Goodness-of-Fit GoF of the model is 0. Covariance-based structural equation modeling CB-SEM analysis of the direct and indirect effects among variables.

All the paths in the model were significant, and the standardized coefficients were listed on them. The thickness of the solid arrows reflected the magnitude of the standardized SEM coefficients, the red solid line represented the positive effect while the blue solid line represented the negative effect.

However, most of the previous studies have overlooked the influences of SR on numerous ecological communities and processes in forest ecosystems, especially at regional or national scales. N and P were the most essential elements involved in the leaf photosynthesis, which was generally considered as the most common association between SR and green plants Dubey et al. Thus, it was essential to explore the large-scale biogeographical patterns of leaf N and P stoichiometry in relation to SR, and widely distributed tree species provided an ideal experiment object for this purpose.

Recently, the potential relationships between SR and leaf N and P stoichiometry had drawn some attentions due to their close associations to nutrient fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems Sun et al. It was well known that leaf N concentration could be used for the estimation of the leaf photosynthetic rate, which was critically important in models of plant, ecosystem, and biosphere responses to global changes Peterson et al.

This indicated that the stable leaf N concentration might imply that the variation of leaf photosynthesis was little for Chinese fir across subtropical China. Thus, it could be speculated that plant respiration influenced mostly by temperature might cause the plant growth performance differences of Chinese fir among northern, middle and southern cultivation areas.

Notably, it was generally accepted that high level of leaf P concentration might be a positive indicator of high leaf photosynthesis, and leaf photosynthesis increased with increasing SR in specific light intensity interval. Thus, in natural situations, the thermal effect of SR could lead to the overheating of leaf surface due to the prolongation of strong SR maintenance time.

That will further affect the photosynthetic processes and eventually result in the no obvious increase or decrease of leaf photosynthesis induced by the excess SR. Divergent from our observations, Ji et al. One explanation for this result is the continental study contained a high proportion of sun plants or light-requiring plants with higher leaf photosynthetic saturation point. Leaf N:P ratio was an important indicator for the limitation of plant growth, which had been widely explored in the previous studies Koerselman and Meuleman In this study, the average leaf N:P ratio was This appeared to be coincide with that the growth performances of Chinese fir exhibited a general downward trend from southern to northern distribution areas Wu The negative relationship between leaf P concentration and MAT supported the TPPH, suggesting that the increase of leaf P concentration might compensate the decrease of biochemical reaction rates inducing by low temperature Reich and Oleksyn ; Hou et al.

Evapotranspiration refers to the total water loss to atmosphere from a land surface, mainly including the soil evaporation and plant transpiration Stanhill Generally, the maintenance of the land surface temperature largely depended on the heat provided by SR, which was also an influencing factor of the evapotranspiration Olivera-Guerra et al.

Moreover, plant transpiration was the main driving force for the uptake of mineral elements such as phosphorus Cernusak et al.

Thus, as we expected, SR was observed having a positive association with MAE, and was further positively related to leaf P concentration in this study Fig. One possible reason could be that high SR, especially the strong ultraviolet ray, would weaken the activity of soil microbial enzymes, resulting in the decreases of the soil organic matter decomposition rate Wang et al.

Another possibility could be that the distribution patterns of soil P content and SR exhibited opposite alteration trends along the geographical gradients, which was consistent with the SAH that soils in low latitudes were older and less fertile than these in high latitudes Reich and Oleksyn ; Hou et al.

Furthermore, our study observed that soil P content was significantly positive related to leaf P concentration, which had been widely confirmed at local and regional scales Hedin ; Debnath et al. The present study was one of a few investigations to explore the direct and indirect effects of SR on leaf N and P stoichiometry across the Chinese fir distribution area. The leaf P concentration and N:P ratio showed significant change trends with SR, while leaf N concentration kept relatively stable at a regional scale.

The SEMs suggested that SR had both direct and indirect associations mediated by climatic and edaphic variables with leaf N and P stoichiometry, and the direct associations were greater than the indirect associations. Overall, our results demonstrated that SR played a key role in regulating the leaf N and P stoichiometry of Chinese fir across subtropical China, which should be involved in the establishment for the future researches of global biogeochemical models. Furthermore, the rational utilization of SR resources would be of great benefit to the Chinese fir cultivation, e.

Specifically speaking, according to the investigation results shown, e. Tree Physiol 31 8 — Article PubMed Google Scholar. Tree Physiol 35 10 — Acta Ecol Sin 38 11 — Article Google Scholar. Geophys Res Lett 42 10 — Dagon K, Schrag DP Exploring the effects of solar radiation management on water cycling in a coupled land—atmosphere model.

J Clim 29 7 — Plant Soil — Dubey P, Raghubanshi A, Dwivedi AK Relationship among specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen, leaf phosphorus and photosynthetic rate in herbaceous species of tropical dry deciduous in Vindhyan highlands. Ann Plant Sci — Ecol Lett 20 6 — Oikos 5 —

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